Scientific name: Anaecypris hispanica
Common name: Saramugo, Pardela
Description: Saramugo (Anaecypris hispanica) is a small fish of the family of the cyprinids (rarely exceeds the 7cm of total length), is an endemic specie of the southern sector of the Iberian Peninsula. The body is narrow and compressed laterally, has small and thin scales and its coloration is silvery and rosy with black scores on the flanks. The head is small, with large eyes that almost touch the dorsal profile of the head which the mouth surpasses. Females are generally larger in size than males.
Breeding season: between april and may (maximum of 100 oocytes per posture).
Diet: Is mainly based on macroinvertebrates, and can still feed on plants, algae and debris.
Status: CRITICALLY ENDANGERED
Scientific name: Squalius alburnoides
Common name: Bordalo
Description: Most of the individuals of this species are hybrids with different diploid (2n = 50), triploid (3n = 75) and tetraploid (4n = 100) ploidies that are not morphologically distinguishable. However, triploid individuals are those that reach larger dimensions (about 13cm) when compared to diploid individuals and tetraploids that rarely exceed 9cm in length. In general, the body of bordalo is narrower in the diploids and tetraploids than in the triploids, the head is pointed and has a barrel-free mouth, in a terminal position. The scales are medium-sized and imbricate. The coloration of the dorsal region is darker when compared to the ventral region. The flanks are silver and have (more than the lateral line) a black band more visible in the terminal part.
Breeding season: between april and june.
Diet: Essentially insectivorous.
Scientific name: Squalius pyrenaicus
Common name: Escalo do Sul
Description: Its body is robust and rarely exceeds 20cm in length. The head is large and has a terminal mouth. It has no barbs, and its scales are medium-sized and exhibit dark pigmentation on the outer edge.
Breeding season: Between april and eventually the months of july/august.
Diet: Essentially insectivorous and more rarely of molluscs, amphibians, crustaceans and fish.
Scientific name: Pseudochondrostoma willkommii
Common name: Boga do Guadiana
Description: The body is elongated and narrow and can reach a maximum of 25cm in length. The mouth is inferior and straight, the lower lip being a well developed horny blade (used to scrape the substrate to feed), the muzzle is prominent. The scales are very small and in large numbers.
Breeding season: It starts in march and can be prolonged until may/june (depending on the temperature variation, between 15-17ºC).
Diet: It has benthic habits, feeding mainly on vegetal debris and macroinvertebrates.
Scientific name: Iberochondrostoma lemmingii
Common name: Boga-de-boca-arqueada
Description: Elongated body, slightly flat, with dorsal profile slightly convex. Reduced and imbricated scales. The mouth is slightly arched and in the inside, with the upper jaw more developed than the lower jaw, they do not have barbs.
Breeding season: february and april/may.
Diet: Essentially debris, phanerogams, algae and zooplankton.
Scientific name: Luciobarbus steindachneri
Common name: Barbo de Steindachner; Picão
Description: Elongated body compressed laterally, being able to surpass 40cm in length. The dorsal profile of the body is convex, the head (also with convex profile) is of medium size. The mouth is an inlet with medium-sized barbs. The dorsal fin profile is concave. It has numerous and small scales.
Breeding season: march to may/june (depending on water temperature: 18-20 ° C).
Diet: Generalist, with macroinvertebrates being the predominant food.
Status: NEARLY THREATENED
Scientific name: Luciobarbus sclateri
Common name: Barbo do Sul
Description: Eongated body compressed laterally, being able to reach 40cm of total length. The eyes are away from the dorsal profile of the head. The dorsal profile of the body is convex and the ventral profile is practically rectilinear. Head of medium size and mouth inlaid with thick lips with 4 long barbs. The scales are relatively large.
Breeding season: april/may and june/july.
Diet: Omnivorous, composed of aquatic macroinvertebrates, algae, and organic debris.
Scientific name: Luciobarbus microcephalus
Common name: Barbo-de-cabeça-pequena; Buceiro
Description: Elongated body. The eyes are located near the dorsal profile of the head, which is convex. The head is small and the inner mouth with short spikes in relation to the size of the head. Small and numerous scales. It can reach the maximum length of 50cm.
Breeding season: march-april/may (depends on water temperature, 18-20ºC).
Diet: Generalist, with macroinvertebrates and plant material being the predominant food.
Status: NEARLY THREATENED
Scientific name: Luciobarbus comizo
Common name: Cumba
Description: Elongated body, large head and muzzle. The eyes are tangent to the dorsal profile of the head, which is rectilinear or slightly concave. The mouth is broad and terminal, with short wavers relative to the size of the head. The scales are small and numerous. Of all the species of barbs that exist in the Iberian Peninsula, the cumba is the one that reaches larger dimensions, being able to surpass 1m in length.
Breeding season: may-june.
Diet: Essentially macroinvertebrates and debris, occasionally predating small fish.
Scientific name: Salaria fluviatilis
Common name: Caboz-de-água-doce
Description: Elongated and soft body, devoid of scales, very long dorsal fin and long anal fin. The head is tall and mobile, has a small tentacle over the eye and teeth in the jaws. Small fish rarely exceeds 12cm in length. Dominant adult males have a crest on the top of the head (see illustration), as opposed to females.Elongated and soft body, devoid of scales, very long dorsal fin and long anal fin. The head is tall and mobile, has a small tentacle over the eye and teeth in the jaws. Small fish rarely exceeds 12cm in length. Dominant adult males have a crest on the top of the head (see illustration), as opposed to females.
Breeding season: may-august.
Diet: Essentially macroinvertebrates and insects, occasionally small fish.
Scientific name: Cobitis paludica
Common name: Verdemã
Description: Serpentine and laterally compressed body, generally never exceeding 12cm in total length. It has small scales and deeply inserted into the skin. The mouth is small and has 3 pairs of barbs. It has sexual dimorphism, males are generally smaller, with the second ray of the pectoral fin ossified (called the Canestrini scale or circular lamina).
Breeding season: may-july.
Diet: Carnivorous and/or detritivores, feeding essentially on insect larvae, other invertebrates and debris.
Status: LEAST CONCERN